Linux Mint and blinking/flashing/blanking screen

I suppose this problem will affect many people, so here’s one answer for Google to find. The latest Mint (18) has some graphics problems on at least the integrated GPU of Broadwell chips — others have reported similar issues on Skylake chips as well. It is reasonable to assume that other Ubuntu derivatives are susceptible too. It seems that kernel 4.4 introduced some bug that causes the screen to occasionally turn black for a fraction of a second. Changing the window manager or compositor do not alleviate the problem.

Mint 17.x does not suffer from blinking as it uses 3.x kernels. Updating to 4.6.3 seems to solve the issue as well, so it’s probably not a question of the X server either. The only quirk is that Mint doesn’t let you use other kernels than the 4.4 series easily. Here’s one package with instructions that did the trick, use at your own risk.

Add comment August 15th, 2016

PAL MSX screen aspect ratio

I’ve been using various guesstimates throughout the years for the PAL MSX screen and pixel aspect ratios, but now there’s finally something credible instead (in contrast, NTSC machines have ~square pixels). According to this discussion thread, the pixels are as wide as 7:5 or, in other words, they are 1.4 times as wide as they are high. That’s pretty flat! I got almost same figures on my own Philips 1084S using a ruler, so they’re very likely correct. Other calculations:

  • The pixel area of a 256×192 image is 5.6:3 — almost the same as a modern 16:9 screen
  • That is a multiplier of 1.8666… for the image height to calculate the width
  • In terms of square pixels 358×192 is very close, or with double pixels 717×384 even better

Viewing a borderless SCREEN 2 image fullscreen on a 16:9 screen gives a pretty good quick estimate of how it will look like. Two things to note are of course that people’s CRT displays are not perfectly calibrated, and that emulators do not use a correct ratio by default. In general horizontal stretching looks worse than vertical, which might be one reason emulators are a bit conservative with their aspect ratios; for example openMSX definitely produces a narrow image – even setting horizontal_stretch to its minimum value of 256 doesn’t make the image flat enough. Furthermore, Japanese Konami warez would appear unnaturally squeezed, even though that’s exactly how they were seen in Europe back in the day.

Square pixels vs. a corrected image:

Violence (screen 2)

"Violence" as it looks like on a real machine

edit: just as notes here some other numbers. Out of a 313 line full progressive PAL frame about 61.3% is spent on actual pixel lines, while the remaining 121 lines (38.7%) are for the border (113 lines) and vertical sync (8 lines). Dividing 3.58 MHz by 50 yields 71600 clocks per frame, but as a progressive frame is longer (49.92 Hz), the actual clocks are closer to 71700 per frame or 229 per scanline.

As shown by the IO demo, the exact cycles are not stable across machines, which makes it tricky to do splitting effects on an MSX1. IO uses a timing of 228 cycles/line or 71364 per frame, so those are probably the correct numbers on at least some machines.

edit2: Haven’t confirmed yet whether the MSX outputs 312 or 313 lines per frame, so the figures above are just estimates (there are some other possible error sources too). What is known is that the vertical blanking interrupt (VBI) takes place immediately after the last pixel line, not outside the screen. In addition, ideal Z80 cycles are not correct on real machines, as there are additional T-states introduced by memory access.

Add comment August 1st, 2016

Skeneaktivoitumista @Vammala Party

Pitkällisen skenetutkimuksen jälkeen teki mieli vaihteeksi oikeasti tehdä jotain, ja kun Vammala Partykin oli taas tulossa, rupesin värkkäämään kompokuvia ja -demoja. Lisäkimmokkeena toimi Lieves!Tuoreen 20-vuotisjuhla. Olen tehnyt pikseligraffaa aika vähän, joten kokonaisen kuvan piirtämiseen meni kauan — toisen tekeleen pohjalla oli sentään 2013 aloitettu multicolor-kuvanraakile. Työkaluna oli Teron Multipaint. PETSCII on tutumpi ja kepeämpi formaatti, joten pari kuvaa syntyi nopeastikin. Itse kompo meni persiilleen, mutta kaikkiaan olen silti ihan positiivisesti yllättynyt lopputuloksesta. Piirtelyn lisäksi koodasin kaksi pientä MSX-demoa. Bonarina vielä VIC-20:lle tehty Rock joka tiesi… liikaa! eli 1983 julkaistun tietokoneella tehdyn sarjakuvan takaisinkonversio. Kerron Rockista lisää tuonnempana. Aiheeseen liittyviä linkkejä:

Add comment July 18th, 2016

Neljännen opinnäytteen äärellä

Homma on edennyt niin hitaasti ja kankeasti, etten ole kovin paljon kenellekään viitsinyt mainostaa tekeväni taas yhtä opinnäytettä. Nyt, kun kirjoitusurakka alkaa kääntyä loppusuoralle (ensimmäinen raakaversio tuli valmiiksi juuri tänään) niin uskaltanen jo kertoa, että väitöskirja on tarkoitus taputella kuntoon vielä tämän vuoden puolella, sikäli kun ohjaajat, esitarkastajat ja laitoksen moninaiset prosessit sen sallivat. Aiheena jälleen sama kuin lisurissakin eli demoskene, mutta tällä kertaa paremmassa ohjauksessa sekä jo hieman kouliintuneemman humanistin ottein. Turun yliopiston digitaalisen kulttuurin oppiainehan on humanistisen tiedekunnan alla — tätä tilannetta tuskin olisin 1996 kuvitellut näkeväni.

Näin jälkiviisautena tohtorintutkintoon olisi voinut ja kannattanut tähdätä hieman suorempaa polkua. Toisen maisterintutkinnon tekemisestä on ollut käytännössä aika marginaalisesti hyötyä, eivätkä lisensiaatin paperitkaan oikein avanneet uusia ovia nykyisen akateemisen maailman tohtori/ei tohtori -binäärin vuoksi. Noh, kaipa noista opinnoista on edes jotain syvämmen sivistystä tarttunut. Jos voisin nyt neuvoa 2009 itseäni, niin: häivy sen lisurisi kanssa vehreämmille laitumille ja laajenna se siellä monografiaväikkäriksi kunnon ohjauksessa. Moisella oikopolulla olisi säästynyt muutama vuosi.

Olen välillä ollut pikkiriikkisen kateellinen jatko-opiskelijakollegoilleni, sillä he ovat enemmän ja vähemmän kaikki jostain humanistiselta alalta peräisin. Itse taas olen aika kotikutoinen tapaus, sillä en ole maisterivaiheessa koskaan tutustunut humanistisiin tutkimusmenetelmiin, diskursseihin jne., jollei sitten paria taidehistorian peruskurssia lasketa. Asiat voi toki opetella omin nokkineenkin, mutta hieman turhauttavaa ja epävarmaa se on toisinaan ollut toisenlaisesta taustasta tulevalle. En edelleenkään pärjää Foucault/Deleuze/Latour-vyörytyksessä, mutta tutkimusta voi onneksi tehdä maanläheisemminkin.

Add comment June 24th, 2016

Spirobolic-rakkolevätyyny

Somessa tuli taas vastaan joku terveyttä ja hyvinvointia kohentava höpötuote, joita tuntuu markkinoille ilmaantuvan tasaiseen tahtiin. Tuoreessa muistissa lienevät vielä vaikkapa Skudo-säteilysuojaPower Balance -hologrammiranneke sekä Valkee-korvavalot, eikä homeopatiakaan ole koskaan kartalta kadonnut, vaan tunkee pikemminkin jo apteekkeihinkin. Tästä intoutuneena innovoin puppugeneraattorin, joka soveltuu alan tuotekehitykseen – reloadilla lisää tuotteita: http://www.kameli.net/~marq/energia/

Toteutukseen meni kaikkiaan parisen tuntia PHP:llä. Suurin osa ajasta kului avainsanojen kaiveluun netistä. Tuotemerkki sekä -nimi muodostetaan molemmat satunnaisesti alku- ja loppuosasta (“Bene-“, “Rosa-“, “Vita-” ja sitten “-dol”, “-san” tm. perään), minkä jälkeen arvotaan virkkeeseen loppuosan mainesanat niin ikään taulukoista. Tuotekuvauksen jälkimmäinen puolisko käyttää samoja datoja kuin alkukin, mutta yksinkertainen logiikka varmistaa, ettei mikään aiempi sana toistu. Joitakin hieman kummallisia yhdistelmiä tulee edelleen, mutta se oikeastaan sopii tähän käyttöön.

“Rosasan-pellavalaastari piristää voimakkaasti solujen luonnollista aineenvaihduntaa sekä tukee hermoratojen kokonaisvaltaista ionisaatiota.”

Add comment May 27th, 2016

Cracking the Oric hires

During the last few days I’ve spent hours and hours trying to understand how Oric (Oric-1 and Atmos) hires graphics work. Compared to most 8-bit home computers of the 1980s the mode is notably different with its “serial attribute” based layout. If you know how teletext works, you’ll easily notice certain similarities. You can find multiple elaborate explanations of Oric graphics online, but I’ll try and distill their essence into a few minimalistic rules:

  1. There are 240 by 200 pixels described by 8000 bytes located at A000h (followed by three hard-wired lines of text which we will omit). One row is 40 bytes.
  2. There are eight colors to choose from: black, red, green, yellow, blue, magenta, cyan and white ie. a typical 3-bit BGR colorspace from 0 to 7.
  3. For each byte – describing six not eight pixels – you can do one of the following:
    1. Change the ink color. Six pixels of paper color will be displayed in this 6×1 block. Byte contents: 0..7.
    2. Change the paper color. Six pixels of the new paper color will be displayed. Byte contents: 16..23.
    3. Display pixels using the current ink (1) and paper color (0). Byte contents: 40h + bitmap in the lower-order bits.
  4. If bit 7 is on, the block will be displayed in inverted colors. Note that the inversion does not affect the result of ink/paper change operations, only the outlook of the 6×1 block. The inversion logic is a bitwise not:
    1. black – white, 000 – 111
    2. red – cyan, 001 – 110
    3. green – magenta, 010 – 101
    4. yellow – blue, 011 – 100
  5. Every new row starts with white ink and black paper.

In addition there’s stuff like 50/60 Hz, blinking and text mode setting, but we’ll skip them too. At first the ruleset seems quite simple, but once you actually start thinking of how to do graphics with it, things don’t look that easy anymore. Let’s warm up with a little close-up of a real Oric piccy (“Yessagician” by Dbug):

clashornot

This is the left edge of the screen and the gray lines denote 6 pixel block borders. How would you choose the operations for displaying the pixels – in particular the area I’ve outlined with a red rectangle?

Solutions: the completely black lines we could show as pixels as the line starts with white ink and black paper, but there’s many other possible solutions too. Every black 6×1 block might actually contain an ink change or perhaps setting the paper to black again. Or setting the paper to white and turning the inverse bit on. The 6×1 blue blocks we could create by simply changing the paper to blue, after which the next identical block could contain an optional ink change.

As to the marked area, however, we need to do something else. Changing the paper to blue on the left leaves us with white/blue which will not do for the next block as there are pixels to be displayed. The only possible solution is to turn paper yellow and invert the colors for both of the blocks. An inverted white/yellow pair provides the needed black/blue for the bitmap.

The first two questions I tried to solve were “Is this picture a legal Oric hires image?” and “How to display a legal image using the possible operations?” There’s more to converting a random image to the Oric, but these two problems have to be understood in order to get anywhere. A first bruteforce solution which didn’t even check all the possible combinations took several minutes to solve just one row of a simple image on a recent i5 computer, so clearly something else had to be done.

For each 6×1 block containing one or two colors there can be multiple solutions. Two-color blocks are the easy case: there’s the bitmap and the colors inherited from the left, possibly inverted. One-color blocks are a different ballgame altogether, since they can contain paper changes, invisible ink changes or they might even be a bitmap. All of this with or without inversion, of course. Another difference is that a two-color block needs to get proper colors from the left, whereas a single-color one can be displayed anytime with a paper change.

The following image tries to convey a conceptual model of how it works:

dag

Each column in the graph represents a 6x1 block and its multiple possible solutions. Some could call this a directed acyclic graph. The first block can be displayed in four different ways, the next only in two and so on – in reality the numbers are a lot higher with singe-color blocks. The arrows denote possible movement from left to right: each way of displaying a given block here limits the options for the next block. For example a block which leaves ink/paper as white/black does not provide for its neighbor in need of red color.

Instead of a recursive approach starting from the left and trying out all the possible solutions it is enough to simply loop through the columns, create the links, optionally dropping the dead-ends (solutions leading nowhere on the right or with no supply from the left) and duplicates (same in/out combinations). If there is a path that runs all the way from the left edge to the right, we can conclude that this particular row is legal. More than one path is possible, but that doesn’t really matter. Walking back from right to left we can collect one legit representation for the row, thus solving the two “research questions”.

When it comes to dealing with images that do not comply or converting a random jpeg, I don’t have much to say yet. Different approaches will lead to better or worse approximations – as of now I simply turn offending two-color blocks to single-color ones, but much more could be done. Further reading and examples here:

edit: some first thoughs on dealing with non-conforming images. The first thing I’d try is make a graph with approximate solutions, make the errors the weights of the vertices and use a shortest path algorithm such as Dijkstra’s to find the nearest possible approximation.

edit2: here’s a bit more visual representation of the bits as a bonus.

Add comment May 26th, 2016

Pixel Polizei is out

A project I’ve been working on for the last few weeks is now out: Pixel Polizei is a helper tool for the retro artist. The purpose is to let the “graphician” draw using whatever software they happen to like, check/force color clashes and finally save the outcome in native formats that can be viewed using emulators or the real deal. So far there is support for these machines and screen modes:

  • Amstrad CPC modes 0 and 1 with or without overscan
  • C-64 hires and multicolor
  • MSX screen 2
  • Oric hires
  • Plus/4 hires and multicolor
  • ZX Spectrum

More formats and platforms will appear when I find the time and motivation again. As usual, the tool should work on Lin/Mac/Win as long as Java 7 or newer is installed. Open source, too.

ppolizei-plus4

Add comment May 17th, 2016

Tietoverkko sähköverkossa

Kaupasta saa tätä nykyä jo monenlaista edullista Homeplug-adapteria (jossain suomennettu datasähkösovittimeksi, itse olen puhunut sähköverkkosillasta), joilla saa jatkettua kotiverkkoa sähköverkon kautta. Tarvetta on moisille ollutkin, sillä netti tulee eteiseen ja huoneistossa oleva datakaapelointi on vedetty hieman tötterösti ainoastaan makuuhuoneiden kaukaisimpiin nurkkiin. Kaunis ajatus, mutta käytännössä ei välttämättä aivan niin ruusuista kuin voisi toivoa.

Tökkeleille lupaillaan huimia siirtonopeuksia, joiden pitäisi huidella jopa gigabitin tuolla puolen. Käytännössä jäädään murto-osaan lupaillusta, mutta vauhti on tavalliseen kotikäyttöön sittenkin aivan kelpo. Ainakin 50 megabitin Internet-yhteys menee läpi täyttä vauhtia. Samoin kantamaksi saatetaan lupailla jopa puolta kilometriä, mikä lienee tyhjiössä ja Faradayn häkissä hetkellisesti mitattu laboratoriotulos, jos edes sitä. Etenkin pelaajan kannattaa huomioida, että latenssit kasvavat sähköverkkosillan kanssa väistämättä jokusella millisekunnilla.

Hyvin paljon on ilmeisesti kiinni kaapeloinnista: netistä löytyneet käyttäjäkokemukset ovat todella vaihtelevia. Samassa sähköverkossa olevat muut laitteet, kuten pesukoneet, mikroaaltouunit ym. huonontavat nekin yhteyden laatua. Tässä kämpässä kaikille isovirtaisille laitteille on onneksi omat sulakkeensa. Halvat adapterit ovat myös ilmeisen herkkiä hajoamaan – keskustelupalstat ovat pullollaan valitusta aiheesta.

Ensimmäisenä ostin ZyXELin PLA4201:t, jotka olivat ainakin arvostelujen perusteella kelpo purkit. Aluksi vaikuttikin lupaavalta, mutta pingi nousi välillä ja verkko katkeili ärsyttävästi muutaman kerran päivässä. Seuraavaksi kokeiluun T-Linkin hyvin samanlainen TL-PA4010, jonka kanssa tuli niin samanlaista käytöstä, että rupesin jo epäilemään molemmissa olevan aivan samat sisuskalut. Viimeisenä epätoivoisena yrityksenä vaihdoin vielä merkkiä hyvässä maineessa olevaan Netgeariin, jonka Powerline 1200 -paketti ei ollut sekään kallis. Ainakin toistaiseksi on toiminut: pingi on Elisalle 6–12 ms eikä yhteys ole pudonnut kertaakaan.

En usko noiden huonommin toimivien purkkien olevan mitenkään rikki; ne nyt vaan eivät toimi hyvin tässä kaapeloinnissa tai tykkää palveluntarjoajan toimittamasta bitistä. Hieman kallis oppitunti aiheesta, mutta eiköhän noillekin jotain käyttöä löydy. Kaikkiaan lopputulema on jokseenkin ristiriitainen: hyvässä tapauksessa Homeplugeilla saa todella helposti verkon vaikkapa rakennusten välille tai talon kerroksesta toiseen, mutta käytännössä yhteys voi toimia vähän niin ja näin säkästä riippuen.

Add comment May 15th, 2016

Passikuvan kohdistus

Eilen tuli taas säädettyä passikuvien kanssa: nykyäänhän kuvan voi lähettää suoraan sähköisenä poliisin verkkopalveluun, vaikka ymmärrettävistä syistä putiikki suositteleekin virallisia valokuvaamoja. Tällainen tee-se-itse-henkinen harrastajavalokuvaajahan toki Osaa Itsekin(tm) ja äheltää mieluummin kaksi tuntia linssien, jalustojen, valaistuksen ja editoinnin kanssa 🙂 Kuvan tekniseen toteutukseen on tarkat – vaikkakin bugiset – ohjeet. Tässä ihan omaksi ilokseni kohdistusviivat 500×653 pikselin kuvalle, jottei tarvi jatkossa äheltää rajauksen kanssa aivan yhtä kauan:

passikuvakohdistus kliiffipassi

Tuosta kun tekee layerin varsinaiseen kuvaan, niin voi nopeasti todeta, menivätkö nenä, päälaki ja leuankärki oikeille kohdilleen, kuten oikealla (Angel Eyesille vinkiksi, että katse kameraan ja hattu sekä piippu pois).

Add comment April 26th, 2016

PETSCII editors – design thoughts

After more than two years of improving and honing my own project, and checking the competition I got the urge to share some of my thoughts on what makes or breaks a PETSCII editor. A lot of this stuff is actually pretty self-evident in the end, but it has taken hours and hours to figure it out. Bear with me 🙂

Not pixels

When comparing a PETSCII editor to a generic paint program there are plenty of similarities, but also notable differences. Instead of tens of thousands of individual pixels we’re dealing with a relatively low-resolution grid consisting of predefined symbols. On the one hand it is easier to deal with text, since tools such as lines, ellipses and curves are rather useless, but on the other hand there is a constant need to effectively choose and alternate between the available symbols, which requires different kind of thinking altogether. In other words, adopting tried and tested methods from paint programs alone will not lead to optimal outcome.

Among the most powerful features of PETSCII (the editor) are smart rotation and flipping of a selected area which take into account the form of the character. I take no credit for these, as it was Tero who came up with the idea in the first place and wrote the remapping tables. Not every character can be rotated or flipped, but even so you’ll save a lot of time when working with symmetric forms. See the following image for an example of how “smart” flipping works as opposed to simply moving the characters:

flippi

Typing vs. drawing

In essence there are two main methods to get characters on the screen. The traditional way, typing, was initially the only possible option and is still heavily present in modern-day editors (for example AAE). A mouse is something of a rarity on C-64s and graphical symbols can be conveniently found on the keys, so on a real machine typing makes all sense – but a lot less so on your PC or Mac which has a different keyboard to begin with.

I’ve included a half-assed typing mode in PETSCII, mostly for the sake of actually writing text, even though all the symbols can be typed too if it’s really necessary. In any case, drawing with a mouse was the preferred metaphor right from the beginning. There are pros and cons to both, but using a mouse definitely makes it quicker to sketch forms in the spirit of direct manipulation. A little but important detail is to show the character before it is actually placed: otherwise you end up constantly undoing the operation.

Character selection

When drawing, a great deal of time is spent on selecting the next character. The first thing to do was to reorganize the otherwise messy character set to group related symbols together (thanks go to Tero again). Jambonbill went even further and repeated the same characters multiple times to create visually continuous groups.

char-charts

A well-organized character selector is a good start, but much more can be done to facilitate an efficient workflow. For example in PETSCII the aforementioned rotate and flip operations work with individual characters as well: press a single key and get the next corner for a window or a box. In the same lines I came up with “smart sets”, predefined sets that you can walk through with a keypress. Another little bit that arose from a real need was to let the user quickly shift stick characters (used for various lines) right/left/up/down.

As a piece of PETSCII art is drawn, you typically start accumulating useful characters and their combinations in the image itself. Instead of always going for the selector – which in Playscii even occludes part of the canvas – it makes sense to quickly pick a character from the surroundings.

Grid

You can get away without a grid if the images are comparably small, but all in all a well-working grid can be of great benefit when selecting regions and aligning symbols with each other. After at least three complete rewrites of the drawing code I’ve eventually come up with the following findings:

  • Don’t make the grid intrusive (thick, contrasty etc.)
  • No single color works for the grid alone. Instead, darken light colors and lighten dark colors to keep it harmonious.
  • It’s useful to have a quick on/off toggle

Below a few real-life examples of how the grid looks like in different editors.

gridit

File formats

The file formats supported by an editor tend to reveal its intended use. Some editors are clearly geared toward actual machines, stick to their limitations and facilitate easy exporting to formats like .prg, which can be run on real hardware. At the other end of the spectrum you might get only PNG files or GIF animations out for easy distribution on the web.

I’ve been balancing between the two extremes myself: initially the idea was to support software development and participate in demoscene competitions. However, it soon became evident that many people needed and wanted to distribute their works online for easy viewing, so I had to give in and add a PNG exporter. Supporting multiple exporters for multiple machines obviously means plenty of error-prone extra work.

Automatically converting existing images to PETSCII is a different discussion altogether. Having said that, many users would welcome such a feature for, say, converting their self-portrait into retro character art. In addition, an artist can benefit from a reference image, as some of them prefer sketching on paper first before firing up the actual editor.

Animation and other fancy features

Creating proper support for animation is in probably as big a task as all the others combined. As of now there are animation features in multiple editors, but none of them really go beyond simple copy/paste and playback of the frames. Think of a proper video or animation editor to realize how many possible features there could be.

Undo and redo aren’t exactly “fancy” features from a user perspective, but it takes some effort to include them in your editor. It’s definitely a good idea to implement them early on, as adding them as an afterthought might prove painful – speaking from experience 🙂 There are more and less sophisticated ways to go about undo, but as we’re dealing with quite little data it’s not all that bad to just save the buffers between operations for undoing or repeating the steps. Another welcome safety network comes in the form of automated backups.

There are a couple of editors that support layers, approximately in the lines of your familiar photo editing software. I can definitely see some uses for them, for example for separating the background from foreground figures. Then again, to fully support layers requires considerable effort, and they aren’t quite as useful as in photo editing, as you can’t really have things like translucency or color manipulation.

Accessibility

While some users are after a genuine user experience – tapping away on a real C-64 – most seem to welcome the ease of cross-development. Supporting the three main desktop platforms (plus their different flavors) is tedious at best, and thus some of the editors run on Windows only. Being a Mac/Linux user myself this was, of course, out of the question, but luckily Processing lets you export multiplatform applications with little extra effort. On the downside, Java is required on the target machine, which will turn off some possible users (and rightfully so).

As I see it, the best bet these days would be to develop for the web. In spite of the possible troubles with browser compatibility, web applications tend to be multiplatform by nature. In addition, you don’t need to go through the trouble of installing anything on the local computer. If I were to start from scratch, I’d probably take this route. As of now there are two online editors already, even if neither of them is quite complete yet (see my previous post).

Another angle to accessibility follows from the fact that people use laptops and tablets with a crammed keyboard. Therefore, relying on numpad or function keys beyond F10 is obviously out. Likewise, touch pads (esp. Apple ones) might not have more than one or two mouse buttons available, which requires some thought. Even more so for touch screens, which again introduce a new set of challenges.

Documentation

I can wholeheartedly relate to programmers that want to spend their free time on interesting coding problems instead of writing documentation. Even if it’s not exactly fun, there is a need for at least some product support: be it a manual, online help or a website. A few nice example works done with the editor definitely don’t hurt, as they show what’s possible and spark user interest.

Conclusion

Cross-development tools for PETSCII are a surprisingly new phenomenon. As far as I know, they’ve been around for not much more than five years, after which things have really started picking up speed. The threshold of starting to do character art has probably never been lower, and new authors are popping up every now and then.

All in all, the challenge of programming a PETSCII editor is twofold: there’s the tech and then there are the users. It’s not hard to put together basic minimum functionality, but going beyond that has turned out so laborious that most projects have been abandoned shortly after their initial release. PETSCII too would require quite an overhaul by now to accommodate any new major features – feature requests are, of course, neverending.

Implementing new modes, tools and so on is one thing, but thinking about the workflow and making the features useful is another. If you’re not much of an artist yourself, it’s at least good to have one in the loop: user feedback or even going so far as to observe someone’s work over their shoulder provide valuable insight and motivation. Ok ok, that was the design teacher in me speaking 🙂

2 comments April 6th, 2016

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